Domèrat Marianne

Several recent books have developed theoretical arguments about how historical memory is cultivated. The most important of these in English are Patrick H. Hutton, History as an Art of Memory (Hanover: University Press of New England, 1993) and David Lowenthal, The Past is a Foreign Country (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985). Two other books of significance are Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London: Verso Press, 1983) and Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger, eds., The Invention of Tradition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983). Perhaps no study of historical memory can rival that of Pierre Nora, ed., Les Lieux de mémoire, 3 vols. (Paris: Gallimard, 1984-93). For those who can read Portuguese, José Murilo de Carvalho's A Formaçã das Almas: O Imaginário da República no Brasil (São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1990) is a model study on creating imaginary tradtions.


For an encyclopedia account of the history of the French Revolution, see François Furet and Mona Ozouf, eds., A Critical History of the French Revolution, trans. by Arthur Goldhammer (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989). An excellent textbook on the French Revolution and a good alternative account to that provided in Furet and Ozouf is Donald M.G. Sutherland, France 1789-1815: Revoltion and Counterrevolution (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986).

On women and the French Revolution, see Joan B. Landes, Women and the Public Sphere in the Age of Revolution (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1988), and Joan Wallach Scott, Only Paradoxes to Offer: French Feminists and the Rights of Man (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996).

More information on the Haitian revolution can be found in the classic work of C.L.R. James, The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution (New York: Vintage Books, 1963). See also, Yves Benot, La révolution française et la fin des colonies (Paris: Éditions La Découverte, 1989); La Révolution française, la peninsule iberique et l'Amerique Latine (Collection des Publications de la BDIC, 1989); and the collection of articles in Jean Tarrade, ed., La Révolution française et les colonies (Paris: Société Française d'Histoire d'Outre-Mer, 1989).


The best study on "Marianne" in France is Maurice Agulhon, Marianne into Battle: Republican Imagery and Symbolism in France, 1789-1880 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981). See also, Eric Hobsbawm, "Man and Woman in Socialist Iconography," History Workshop, 6 (Autumn 1978), 121-138; Neil Hertz, "Medusa's Head: Male Hysteria under Political Pressure," Representations, 4 (Fall 1983), 27-54; and Lynn Hunt, Politics, Culture, and Class in the French Revolution in France (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984). On republican imagery in Brazil, see José Murilo de Carvalho, A Formação das Almas: O Imaginário da República no Brasil (S&atildeo Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1990).

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