THE CONQUEST OF THE AMERICAS

Reading:  http://faculty.fullerton.edu/nfitch/nehaha/index.htm

Spodek, "The Columbian Exchanges of Plants, Animals, and Disease,"

 p. 457

Columbus

    Española

    Viceroyality of Cuba

Aztecs--Mexica

    Nahuatl

    Quetzacoatl

    Human Sacrifice

    Tenochtitlan

    Lake Texcoco

    Moctezuma II takes power in 1502

Spaniards Conquer Cuba

1517--Spaniards begin to explore Mexico

        Aztecs begin to experience bad omens

Hernán Cortés - February 10, 1519--Defies Governor Diego Velasquez

    June 3, 1519--Spaniards arrive at Cempoala

    11 ships, 600 soldiers, 200 native servants, 16 horses, 32 crossbows, 13 muskets, and 14 cannons

    Translator

        Jerome de Aguilar

        Spoke Mayan

        Doña Marina--La Malinche--Malintzin

        Spoke Mayan and Nahuatl

        Cortes' mistress and translator

            Cortés (El Malinche)

Sept. 2-20, 1915--Spaniards fight with Tlaxcalans but end by winning Tlaxcalan allies

      October 1519 - Massacre at Cholula

      Nov. 8, 1519 - Spaniards peacefully entered Tenochtitlan

          Moctezuma clearly believes Cortes is Quetzacoatl and welcomes  him

        November 14, 1519 - Cortes puts Moctezuma under house arrest

        May, 1520 Cortes leaves to fight Pánfilo de Naváez from Cuba

        May 1520 Pedro de Alvarado massacres Aztecs during a festival

        June 24 1520 - Cortes returns to Tenochtitlan after defeating de Navaez - has de Navaez's soldiers

        June 1520 - Moctezuma killed

        June 1520 - Moctezuma replaced by Cuitlahuac (who dies shortly of smallpox) - and is replaced by Cuathemoc

         June 30, 1520 -  "Noche Triste" ("The Sad Night")

         July 1520 - Spaniards reach Tlaxcala and are welcomed

        July 1520-May 1521 Cortes regroups with Tlaxcala help -- builds brigantines

          October 1520 - Smallpox decimating the population of Tenochtitlan

           May 1521 - Spaniards lay siege to Tenochtitlan

           July 1521 - After failing to take Tenochtitlan, Cortez decides to destroy it

           August 13, 1521 Cuautemoc either surrenders or is captured and the Battle of Tenochtitlan is over with the city in ruins

          Spaniards rebuild city as Mexico City

Peru

    Inca Huayna Capac ruled generally well from 1493-1525

        Had army of 50,000 loyal followers

        Incas thought he was a god

    Problem:  Religion and Ancestor Worship of Incas (both the name given to the ruler as well as to people ruled)

        When Inca died, he was preserved as a mummy and housed in a sacred chamber with other mummified Incas

            The mummified Inca retained possession of all estates and properties held in life

                Inca nobility managed the property of the dead Incas

                By 1525, so much property in hands of dead Incas, there is almost none for live Inca

            Huáscar (1525-1532) succeeded his father as Inca and crowned at Cuzco

                Huascar was son of father and father's principal wife, who was also his sister

                    Had a half-brother from father and another woman who was not his sister

                    Proposed burying the mummies and selling their property so living could have land

                      Atauhualpa (1532-1533)             

            Atauhualpa had tried to get Huascar to agree to share power

                Huascar refused

                Atauhualpa got support from nobility even though not legal heir

                    Nobility upset at Huascar's mummy proposal

                        Threatened to lose wealth and power

                        Threatened to make gods mad

            Civil War

               Atauhualpa wins

    Francisco Pizarro (c. 1475-1541)

        Arrives in Northern Peru on May 13, 1532

            Same day Atauhualpa defeats Huascar

             Atahualpa Thought Pizarro the God Viracocha--who had left but promised to return

            Thought he could trick Pizarro

                Instead Pizarro tricked him

                    Ambushed Inca at Cajamarca

                    Atauhualpa taken prisoner

                        Promised gold to Spanish if released

                            Pizarro said fine and let Atauhualpa live until got gold

                                Pizarro then had Atauhualpa killed

        Pizarro had the Inca Empire (became Peru), but fierce and organized resistance continued for most of the century

Control

    Disease

        Peru

            Population fell from 1.3 million in 1570 to 600,000 in 1620

        Mexico

            Population fell from 25.3 million Indians in 1519 to 1 million in 1605

        Why?

            Disease, especially smallpox

                Native population had no immunity because of isolation from Eurasia/Africa trading/population networks

            Natives treated poorly by Spanish

                Forced to labor on sugar plantations and mines

                Spanish took land from natives and imported cattle, sheep, and horses from Spain to become ranchers

        By 1511-- King Ferdinanc concluded that "one black could do the work of four Indians"

                Birth of Slavery and massive imports of Africans to Americas

    Economic

        Encomienda System

            Spaniards allowed to force groups of Indians to labor for them

                Slavery outlawed but this was legalized slavery

                Especially bad in silver mines

                    Zacatecas and Guanajuato in Mexico

                    Potosi in what is now Bolivia

        Spaniards became ranchers on obscenely large rancheros of haciendas

        Portuguese created large estates called fazendas in Brazil

            Bahia--Sugar

            Minas Gerais (region on general mines)

                Gold

                Diamonds

                Miners were African slaves

                Leads to development of Rio de Janeiro

        With arrival of Portuguese, indigenous population flees to the interior

        Paper

            Spaniards took land made deeds for themselves

                When Indians protested asked for their paper evidence of ownership

       City Building

            Redesigned Tenochititlan to look Spanish

                Cathedral and Public Square at center

                Peninsulares and criollos lived within city

                 Indians, Mestizos lived in barrios or suburbs

                    Often not allowed in the cities at night

            Built new cities on coasts

                Lima, Peru

                    Historical center of Incas--Cuzco in Andes

                Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Race

        New ways of thinking about race and class

            Social Hierarchy depends on birthplace, color, and free/slave status:

               Peninsulares

               Criollos

                Indians

               Mestizos

                Mulattos

                Free African Americans

                Enslaved African Americans

        Language of color-based racial thinking

            People called whites and blacks--really pinks and browns

        Europeans see themselves as white

            Natives describe them as light-skinned

            Spanish and Portuguese were often pretty dark themselves for Europeans

                Moorish influence in Spain and Portugal in Middle Ages

    Gender

        Most mixed races a product of relationships between European men and darker-skinned women

            Didn't work the other way around

                Darker skinned men seen with lighter women could be killed

    Religion

        To get along in society  better be Catholic

            Thousands of missionaries converted masses

                Outwardly Catholic

                Inwardly often continued to worship things (animism)

                The Virgin of Guadalupe

                    Becomes Mexico's patron saint

                    Peasant had a vision of the virgin in a previously sacred tree

    Government

        Spanish King the ruler

        Mercantilism

            Colonies exist for the benefit of the "Mother" Country

            Peninsulares monopolize trade and commerce and local government positions

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