1. Aristotle’s Inheritances from Plato
    1. Emphasis on form as the key to knowledge.
    2. Emphasis on knowledge (episteme) as the human purpose ( telos)
    3. Belief that natural order is teleological - the result of design for purpose
  2. Aristotle's Epistemological Stance.  
    1. Language is the conceptual ordering principle (arche) of human understanding.
    2. Aristotelian Form 
      1. A state of organization that allows exercise of function
      2. Examples: 
        1. The shape and purpose of a statue
        2. The organization and purpose of a state: its constitution
        3. The psyche of a living organism: vegetative, animal, or rational
    3. Aristotelian Causes
      1. Material Cause:  The substance that is changing
      2. Formal Cause:  The form taken by the substance
      3. Efficient Cause:  The agent bringing about the change
      4. Final Cause:  The goal or purpose of the change
    4. Aristotle’s classification of the disciplines
      1. Theoretical disciplines
      2. Productive disciplines
      3. Practical disciplines
    5. Aristotelian Empiricism vs Platonic Idealism
  3. Aristotle’s Biology
    1. The biological world offered enormous opportunities for observation. 
    2. History of Animals, descriptions of over 500 species of animals
    3. Felt that comparative anatomy (structure) would lead to physiology (function of structures) 
    4. On the Generation of Animals, connections to larger epistemological framework more explicit.
  4. Aristotle’s Cosmology
    1. Eternal Cosmos, (beginning out of nothingness unthinkable)
    2. Three regions in a spherical universe 
      1. Celestial Realm–eternally unchanging cycles
      2. Lunar Realm–shares properties with celestial and terrestrial
      3. Terrestrial Realm–constantly changing cycles
    3. The universe is a plenum (that is, it is full–no empty spaces or voids).
      1. Terrestrial realm contains four elements:
        1. earth (cold, dry)
        2. water (cold, wet)
        3. air (hot, wet)
        4. fire (hot, dry)
      2. Earth and Water share the property of gravitas
      3. Air and Fire share the property of levitas
      4. Celestial realm consists of a fifth element:
        1. quintessence (a.k.a. aether)
      5. Planets carried on nested spheres
        1. counteracting spheres indicate materiality of spheres. 
  5. Aristotle’s Physics
    1. Aristotle and the Distinction Between Mathematics and Physics:
      1. Mathematical disciplines provide quantitative descriptions of the quantitative aspects of the world.
      2. Physics is the study of physis: “natures” or “essences” understood qualitatively. Physics studies these natures in so far as they are capable of kinesis (change). Above all, Physics should provide qualitative causal explanations for why change (kinesis) takes place. Physics should explain why change takes place, especially motion.
    2. Natural motion: linear and toward a natural place for the four elements; circular and eternal for the fifth element, aether.
    3. Violent motion: requires an efficient cause
    4. Aristotle’s Explanation of Natural Motion (a Falling Rock)
      1. Material Cause: the element earth which is the primary component of the rock
      2. Formal cause: an essential property of the element earth is to take a natural motion toward its natural place at the center of the universe.
      3. Efficient cause: none is needed since the motion is “natural”.
      4. Final cause: the purpose of the fall is contribute to the actualization of the form of the element earth.
    5. Aristotle’s Explanation of Violent Motion (a Thrown Rock)
      1. Material Cause: the element earth which is the primary component of the rock
      2. Formal cause: none
      3. Efficient cause: initially this is the thrower. Afterwards air moves in behind the rock and pushes it ahead (antiperistasis)
      4. Final cause: the reason for the thrower’s action.
    6. Aristotle’s Explanation of Planetary Motion
      1. Material Cause: the fifth element, aether
      2. Formal cause: the essential property of ether to move in uniform circular motion around the earth
      3. Efficient cause: perhaps none is needed since ether is moving “naturally, or perhaps a guiding intelligence is needed to keep the planet in its proper orbit.
      4. Final cause: the purpose of uniform circular motion is to imitate or symbolize God’s eternity and perfection.